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Old 05-22-2008, 02:49 AM
john galt john galt is offline
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Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender –

Abstract
This paper is a review of literature concerning using vegetable oils as a
replacement for diesel fuel. The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to
vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to
form what is called biodiesel. The oils studied include virgin and used oils of various
types including soy, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, cottonseed and similar oils. In general,
raw vegetable oils can be used successfully in short term performance tests in nearly any
percentage as a replacement for diesel fuel. When tested in long term tests blends above
20 percent nearly always result in engine damage or maintenance problems. Some
authors report success in using vegetable oils as diesel fuel extenders in blends less than
20 percent even in long term durability studies. Degumming is suggested by one author
as a way to improve use of raw oils in low level blends. It is apparent that few, if any,
engine studies using low-level blends of unmodified vegetable oils, < 20%, have been
conducted.

Introduction
Many studies have been done at the University of Idaho and elsewhere involving
vegetable oils as a primary source of energy. Particularly, during the early 1980's,
studies were completed that tested the possibility of using unmodified vegetable oils as a
replacement for diesel fuel.
There is no question that vegetable oil can be placed in the tank of a diesel
powered vehicle and the engine will continue to run and deliver acceptable performance.
Some vegetable oils, such as rapeseed oil, have very high viscosity and thus may starve
the engine for fuel when operated at 100 percent. Most studies show that power and fuel
economy, when compared to operation on diesel, are proportional to the reduced heat of
combustion of the vegetable oil fuel.
Despite the success when diesel engines are operated on vegetable oil for short
term performance tests, the real measure of success when using vegetable oil as a diesel
fuel extender or replacement depends primarily on the performance of vegetable oils in
engines over a long period of time. Thus many researchers have been involved in testing
programs designed to evaluate long term performance characteristics. Results of these
studies indicated that potential hazards such as stuck piston rings, carbon buildup on
injectors, fuel system failure, and lubricating oil contamination (Pratt, 1980) existed
when vegetable oils were used as alternative fuels. This effect diminishes as the blend
of vegetable oil in diesel is decreased. The question of this literature review is to
determine if there is a blend level at which vegetable oil in the unmodified form can be
used as a diesel fuel extender. Throughout this paper when the term vegetable oil or the
name of a particular vegetable oils is used, such as canola, it refers to the unmodified
form.

Vegetable Oil, Diesel Blends as Potential Fuel Sources
Engelman et al. (1978) presented data for 10% to 50% soybean oil fuel blends
used in diesel engines. The initial results were encouraging. They reported at the
conclusion of a 50-hour test that carbon build-up in the combustion chamber was
minimal. For the fuel blends studied, it was generally observed that vegetable oils could
be used as a fuel source in low concentrations. The BSFC and power measurements for
the fuel blends only differed slightly from 100% diesel fuel. Fuel blends containing 60%
or higher concentrations of vegetable oil caused the engine to sputter. Engine sputtering
was attributed to fuel filter plugging. They concluded that waste soybean oil could be
used as a diesel fuel extender with no engine modifications.
Studies in New Zealand by Sims et al. (1981) indicated that vegetable oils,
particularly rapeseed oil, could be used as a replacement for diesel fuel. Their initial
short-term engine tests showed that a 50% vegetable oil fuel blend had no adverse
effects. While in long-term tests they encountered injector pump failure and cold starting
problems. Carbon deposits on combustion chamber components was found to be
approximately the same as that found in engines operated on 100% diesel fuel. These
researchers concluded that rapeseed oil had great potential as a fuel substitute, but that
further testing was required.
Caterpillar (Bartholomew, 1981) reported that vegetable oils mixed with diesel
fuel in small amounts did not cause engine failure. Short-term research showed that
blends using 50/50 were successful, but that 20% vegetable oil fuel blends were better.
Deere and Company (Barsic and Humke, 1981) studied the effects of mixing
peanut oil and sunflower oil with Number 2 diesel fuel in a single cylinder engine. The
vegetable oil blends were observed to increase the amount of carbon deposits on the
combustion side of the injector tip when compared with 100% diesel fuel. The vegetable
oil fuel blends were found to have a lower mass-based heating value than that of diesel
fuel. Fuel filter plugging was noted to be a problem when using crude vegetable oils as
diesel fuel extenders.
International Harvester Company (Fort et al. 1982) reported that cottonseed oil,
diesel fuel blends behaved like petroleum-based fuels in short-term performance and
emissions tests. The experimental fuels performed reasonably well when standards of
judgment were power, fuel consumption, emissions, etc. However engine durability was
an issue during extended use of these fuel blends because of carbon deposits and fueling
system problems.
Other research at International Harvest Company (Baranescu and Lusco, 1982)
was done using three blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Results indicated that the
sunflower oil caused premature engine failure due to carbon buildup. It was noted that
cold weather operation caused fuel system malfunctions.
Worgetter (1981) analyzed the effects of using rapeseed oil as a fuel in a 43-kW
tractor. The goal of running the tractor for 1000 hours on a blend of 50% rapeseed oil
and 50% diesel was never achieved as the test was aborted at about 400-hours due to
unfavorable operating conditions. The use of rapeseed oil in the fuel resulted in heavy
carbon deposits on the injector tips and pistons, which would have caused catastrophic
engine failure if the tests had not been aborted. Upon engine tear down, it was found that
the heavy carbon deposits on the pistons was the cause of the noted power loss and not
the fuel injectors.
Wagner and Peterson (1982) reported mixed results when using rapeseed oil as a
substitute fuel. Attempts to heat the oil fuel mixture prior to combustion exhibited no
measurable improvement in fuel injection. Severe engine damage was noted during
short-term engine testing due to the use of rapeseed oil. A long-term test using a 70%
rapeseed, diesel fuel blend was successful for 850 hours with no apparent signs of wear,
contamination of lubricating oil, or loss of power.
Van der Walt and Hugo (1981) examined the long-term effects of using sunflower
oil as a diesel fuel replacement in direct and indirect injected diesel engines. Indirect
injected diesel engines were run for over 2000 hours using de-gummed, filtered
sunflower oil with no adverse effects. The direct injected engines were not able to
complete even 400 hours of operation on the 20% sunflower oil, 80% diesel fuel mixture
without a power loss. Further analysis of the direct injected engines showed that the
power loss was due to severely coked injectors, carbon buildup in the combustion
chamber, and stuck piston rings. Lubricating oil analysis also showed high piston, liner,
and bearing wear.
Engine Testing by Ziejewski and Kaufman (1982) at Allis Chalmers using a
50/50 blend of sunflower oil and diesel was unsuccessful. Carbon buildup on the
injectors, intake ports, and piston rings caused engine operating difficulties and eventual
catastrophic failure.
Fuls (1983) reported similar findings for indirect and direct injection engines
using 20% sunflower oil, diesel fuel blends. Fuls Emphasized that injector coking was
the problem with using sunflower oil in direct injected diesel engines.
Caterpillar Tractor Co. (McCutchen, 1981) compared engine performance of
direct injection engines to indirect injection engines when fueled with 30% soybean oil,
70% diesel fuel. The results showed that indirect injection could be operated on this fuel
blend while the direct injection engine could not without catastrophic engine failure
occurring. The direct injection engines showed injector coking and piston ring sticking
as a result of using sunflower oil.
An on-farm study using six John Deere and Case tractors by German et al. (1985)
averaged 1300-hours of operation. Carbon deposits on the internal engine components
were greater for the tractors fueled with 50/50 sunflower oil/diesel than for those fueled
with a 25/75 sunflower oil/diesel fuel blend. All the test engines had more carbon buildup
than normally seen in an engine fueled with diesel fuel. The results of this study
indicated that neither of the fuel blends could be use as a replacement for petroleum
based fuels on a permanent basis without shortening engine life.
Peterson et al. (1982) used rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel extender to study the longterm
effects of using vegetable oils as a fuel source. Fuel composed of 70% rapeseed oil
and 30% Number 1 diesel fuel was successfully used to operate a small single cylinder
engine for 850 hours. No adverse operating conditions were reported at the conclusion of
this engine study. A short-term performance test using a 100% sunflower oil caused
severe piston ring gumming and catastrophic engine failure. This study highlighted the
need for significant long-term engine testing before recommendations of using vegetable
oil as a fuel could be made.
Nag et al. (1995) did studies involving the use of seed oils grown natively in
India. Performance tests using fuel blends as great as 50-50 seed oil from the Indian
Amulate plant and diesel fuel exhibited no loss of power. Knock free performance with
no observable carbon deposits on the functional parts of the combustion chamber were
also observed during these tests. Although this seed oil was not yet commercially
available at the time of this study, it was hoped that it soon would be.
Sapaun et al. (1996) reported that studies in Malaysia, with palm oils as diesel
fuel substitutes, exhibited encouraging results. Performance tests indicated that power
outputs were nearly the same for palm oil, blends of palm oil and diesel fuel, and 100%
diesel fuel. Short-term tests using palm oil fuels showed no signs of adverse combustion
chamber wear, increase in carbon deposits, or lubricating oil contamination.
Ryan et al. (1984) characterized injection and combustion properties of several
vegetable oils. The atomization and injection characteristics of vegetable oils were
significantly different from that of diesel fuel due to the higher viscosity of the vegetable
oils. Engine performance tests showed that power output slightly decreased when using
vegetable oil fuel blends. Injector coking and lubricating oil contamination appeared to
be a more dominate problem for oil-based fuels having higher viscosities.
Pestes and Stanislao (1984) used a one to one blend of vegetable oil and diesel
fuel to study piston ring deposits. Premature piston ring sticking and carbon build-up due
to the use of the one to one fuel blend caused engine failure. The severest carbon
deposits were located on the major thrust face of the first piston ring. These investigators
suggested that to reduce piston ring deposits a fuel additive or a fuel blend with less
vegetable oil was needed.
Other studies by Hofman et al. (1981) and Peterson et al. (1981) indicated that while
vegetable oil fuel blends had encouraging results in short term testing, problems occurred
in long-term durability tests. They indicated that carbon build-up, ring sticking, and
lubricating oil contamination was the cause of engine failure when vegetable oils were
used in high percentages (50% or more) as diesel fuel substitutes.
Due to engine durability problems encountered using raw vegetable oils as a fuel
in the early 1980's, most researchers opted to use chemically modified vegetable fuels
more commonly known as biodiesel in place of unrefined vegetable oils. Thus, in recent
years there has been little literature concerning the feasibility of using raw vegetable oils
as a fuel additive.
McDonnell et al. (2000) studied the use of a semi-refined rapeseed oil as a diesel
fuel extender. Test results indicated that the rapeseed oil could serve as a fuel extender at
inclusion rates up to 25%. As a result of using rapeseed oil as a fuel, injector life was
shortened due to carbon buildup. However, no signs of internal engine wear or
lubricating oil contamination were reported.
Conclusions
Many studies involving use of un-modifed vegetable oils in blend ratios with
diesel fuel exceeding 20 percent were conducted in the early 1980’s. Short-term engine
testing indicates that vegetable oils can readily be used as a fuel source when the
vegetable oils are used alone or are blended with diesel fuel. Long-term engine research
shows that engine durability is questionable when fuel blends contain more than 20%
vegetable oil by volume. More work is needed to determine if fuel blends containing less
than 20% vegetable oil can be used successfully as diesel fuel extenders.


Vegetable Oil As A Diesel Replacement Fuel

While power output and tailpipe emissions using plant or animal oils are in most cases comparable with those when running on petroleum diesel fuel, the main problem encountered has been due to the higher viscosity of the triglyceride oils and their chemical instability. These can cause difficult starting in cold conditions, the gumming up of injectors and the coking-up of valves and exhaust. [3]

The viscosity of plant and animal fats and oils varies from hard crystalline solids to light oils at room temperature. In most cases, these ‘oils’ or ‘fats’ are actually a complex mixture of various fatty acids triglycerides, often with the various components having widely varying melting points. This may give the oil or fat a temperature range over which solidification occurs, with the oil gradually thickening from a thin liquid, through to a thick liquid, then a semi-solid and finally to a solid.

High melting points or solidification ranges can cause problems in fuel systems such as partial or complete blockage as the triglyceride thickens and finally solidifies when the ambient temperature falls. [3] While this also occurs with petroleum based diesel, particularly as the temperature falls below about ~ -10 to -5° C for ‘summer’ formulations and ~ -20 to -10° C for ‘winter’ diesels, it is relatively easy to control during the refining process and is generally not a major problem.

Many vegetable oils and some animal oils are ‘drying’ or ‘semi-drying’ and it is this which makes many oils such as linseed, tung and some fish oils suitable as the base of paints and other coatings. But it is also this property that further restricts their use as fuels.

Drying results from the double bonds (and sometimes triple bonds) in the unsaturated oil molecules being broken by atmospheric oxygen and being converted to peroxides. Cross-linking at this site can then occur and the oil irreversibly polymerises into a plastic-like solid. [9]

In the high temperatures commonly found in internal combustion engines, the process is accelerated and the engine can quickly become gummed-up with the polymerised oil. With some oils, engine failure can occur in as little as 20 hours. [10]

The traditional measure of the degree of bonds available for this process is given by the ‘Iodine Value’ (IV) and can be determined by adding iodine to the fat or oil. The amount of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oil is then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds) the oil and the higher is the potential for the oil to polymerise.

While some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, the majority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which may cause problems if used as a neat fuel. Generally speaking, an IV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used for long term applications in unmodified diesel engines and this limits the types of oil that can be used as fuel. Table 1 lists various oils and some of their properties.

The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogen breaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil which reduces the tendency of the oil to polymerise. However this process also increases the melting point of the oil and turns the oil into margarine.

As can be seen from Table 1, only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any potential problems in an unmodified diesel engine. However, with a melting point of 25°C, the use of coconut oil in cooler areas would obviously lead to problems. With IVs of 25 – 50, the effects on engine life are also generally unaffected if a slightly more active maintenance schedule is maintained such as more frequent lubricating oil changes and exhaust system decoking. Triglycerides in the range of IV 50 – 100 may result in decreased engine life, and in particular to decreased fuel pump and injector life. However these must be balanced against greatly decreased fuel costs (if using cheap, surplus oil) and it may be found that even with increased maintenance costs that this is economically viable.

All of these problems can be at least partially alleviated by dissolving the oil or hydrogenated oil in petroleum diesel ( to reduce the IV to 20)

Table 1 Oils and their melting point and Iodine Values [11]

Oil Approx. melting Iodine

point °C Value

Coconut oil 25 10

Palm kernel oil 24 37

Mutton tallow 42 40

Beef tallow 50

Palm oil 35 54

Olive oil -6 81

Castor oil -18 85

Peanut oil 3 93

Rapeseed oil -10 98

Cotton seed oil -1 105

Sunflower oil -17 125

Soybean oil -16 130

Tung oil -2.5 168

Linseed oil -24 178

Sardine oil 185


abstracted from:
Vegetable Oil As A Diesel Replacement Fuel
Phillip Calais* and AR (Tony) Clark**
* Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia,
** Western Australian Renewable Fuels Association Inc,

http://www.shortcircuit.com.au/warfa/paper/paper.htm

Results of engine and vehicle testing of semi-refined rapeseed oil

The renewed interest in environmentally compatible fuels has led to the choice of rapeseed oil as the main alternative to diesel fuel in Europe. The objective of this research was to produce and test an economic and high quality non-esterified rapeseed oil suitable for use as a diesel fuel extender. This was achieved by acidified hot water degumming combined with filtration to five microns. This rapeseed oil, designated as a Semi Refined Oil (SRO), has a high viscosity in comparison with diesel. Hence SRO fuel can only be used as a diesel fuel extender, with inclusion rates of up to 25 %.

SRO proved to be a suitable diesel fuel extender, at inclusion rates up to 25 %, when used with direct injection combustion systems (viz. tractor type engines). Power output (at 540 rev/min at the power take off shaft) was reduced by c. 0.06% for every 1% increase in SRO inclusion rate, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased by c. 0.14% per 1% increase in SRO inclusion rate (viz. a 25% SRO/diesel blend had a 1.5% decrease in power and a 3.5% increase in BSFC compared with diesel). These values are in accordance with the lower energy density of rapeseed oil fuels compared with diesel. Chemical and viscosity analysis of engine lubrication oil (after c. 170 hours per fuel tested), including metal contamination as an indicator of engine wear occurring, showed that there was no measurable effect on engine lubricating oil due to SRO inclusion in diesel oil.

Abstracted from:
Results of engine and vehicle testing of semi-refined rapeseed oil
Kevin P. McDonnell, Shane M. Ward & Paul B. McNulty
University College Dublin, Dept of Agricultural & Food Engineering, Earlsfort Terrace.Dublin 2, Ireland.
http://www.regional.org.au/au/gcirc/6/214.htm


Performance of rapeseed oil blends in a diesel engine

The concept that 100% vegetable oil cannot be used safely in a direct-injection diesel engine for long periods of time has been stressed by many researchers. Short-term engine tests indicate good potential for vegetable oil fuels. Long-term endurance tests may show serious problems in injector coking, ring sticking, gum formation, and thickening of lubricating oil. These problems are related to the high viscosity and non volatility of vegetable oils, which cause inadequate fuel atomization and incomplete combustion. Fuel blending is one method of reducing viscosity.

This paper presents the results of an engine test on three fuel blends. (75D-25R, 50D-50R, 25D-75R) Test runs were also made on neat rapeseed oil and diesel fuel as bases for comparison. There were no significant problems with engine operation using these alternative fuels. The engine ran well on these fuels after warm-up. The engine performance with the blends was comparable with the baseline test for diesel fuel. There was significant improvement in thermal efficiency and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, compared with diesel fuel, when running on vegetable oil fuels.The test results showed increases in brake thermal efficiency as the amount of rapeseed oil in the blends increases. Reduction of power-output was also noted with increased amount of rapeseed oil in the blends. Test results include data on performance and gaseous emissions.

Continuous exhaust sampling and a hot-flame ionization detector (FID) with a heated line system were used to measure the HC emissions. The vegetable oil fuels offered a net reduction in HC emissions compared with diesel-fuel operation. The data show an average unburned hydrocarbon emission level of 435 ppm with 100% diesel fuel. With 75% diesel-25% rapeseed oil it reduces to 180 ppm, with 50% diesel-50% rapeseed oil it reduces to 160 ppm, with 25% diesel-75% rapeseed oil it reduces to 200 ppm, and with 100% rapeseed oil it reduces to 150 ppm. It's notable that the first 25% of rapeseed oil reduces the HC emissions by 42%.

Crankcase oil analyses showed a reduction in viscosity. Friction power was noted to increase as the amount of diesel fuel in the blend increases.

Abstracted from:
Performance of rapeseed oil blends in a diesel engine

O. M. I. Nwafor and G. Rice
Department of Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Box 225, Reading, UK, RG6 2AY

THE INFLUENCE OF TURPENTINE ADDITIVE ON THE ECOLOGICAL
PARAMETERS OF DIESEL ENGINES

http://www.transport.vgtu.lt/upload/tif_zur/2007-2-butk...as_bogdanovicius.pdf

Algis Butkus 1, Saugirdas Pukalskas 2, Zenonas Bogdanovičius 3
Dept of Automobile Transport, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,
J. Basanavičiaus g. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
E-mails: 1 tiauto@ti.vgtu.lt, 2 saugirdas.pukalskas@ti.vgtu.lt, 3 psichlab@ti.vgtu.lt
Received 1 December 2006; accepted 1 February 2007
Abstract. After Lithuania’s accession to the EU it is very important to use a larger amount of renewable fuel. Based
on economic and environmental considerations in Lithuania, we are interested in studying the effects of turpentine
contents in the blended turpentine–diesel fuel on the engine performance and pollutant emission of compression ignition
(CI) engine. Therefore, we used engine test facilities to investigate the effects on the engine performance and pollutant
emission of 5 % turpentine in the fuel blend. The tests were carried out in the laboratory on an engine dynamometer
of the car Audi 1Z and tractor D21 diesel engines. The experimental results showed that turpentine used in
the fuel blend for these diesel engines had a positive influence on the engine performance and exhaust emission.

4. Conclusions
1. Addition of 5 % of lighter fuel fractions to diesel
fuel reduced engine exhaust smoke by 10…20 % in
both Diesel engines.
2. Turpentine easily form mixtures (without any supplements)
with diesel fuel.
3. Decrease of specific fuel consumption be for diesel
fuel blends with 5 % of turpentine was caused by
faster evaporation and combustion of the blend particles
as compared with pure diesel fuel.
4. Small amount of turpentine additive to diesel fuel
would increase the cost of the fuel blend only by
3…5 %.
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  #2  
Old 05-22-2008, 02:52 AM
john galt john galt is offline
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Stories of favorable results with various additives, including acetone, turpentine, mineral spirits, paint thinner, naptha, kerosene, stove oil, jetA, and gasoline:
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...1/m/4931012412
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...1/m/8811073412
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Old 05-24-2008, 03:29 AM
DCS DCS is offline
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Didn't you post all this up some time Back?
Is there anything new in it to make it worthwhile posting up again and using up more server space?
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* I STILL have never made biodiesel, but I have been present when it has been made. *
Local Self appointed and opinionated Veg oil wizard explaining how he knows so much about bio and can answer every detailed forum question on the subject b
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Old 05-24-2008, 05:41 PM
bork bork is offline
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I thought I read this before also. Still good reading, & seems like more effort was put into analizing the inside componants of engine after burning cocktails. THATS what I'd like to know. Longterm effects, because just about anything will burn in a diesel. I wonder if the water injection would keep the coking off the injector tips on the DI engines? I wish the test would be repeated using some of the blends we are using now, But then again I dont think they would want to promote the chemicals we try.
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Old 06-04-2008, 10:45 AM
kelpie321 kelpie321 is offline
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I would like to thank John Galt for his May
21st posting. I am new to this forum and what concerns me most is long term wear and tear and increased maintainence costs. Has any body done hundreds of hours with vegetable blends and diesel in direct injection motors and measured for engine wear or performance loss?
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Old 06-05-2008, 09:19 AM
bork bork is offline
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I would like to know the same. But I kinda doubt we'll see this , because it promotes home brewing? I can tell you the oil analisis from Blackstone labs, I do, about every 3rd oil change , comes back really good. FWIW
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Old 06-05-2008, 09:43 PM
Blender Blender is offline
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Well I found a good use for my 6 barrels of Jet A - Turbo.
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Old 06-07-2008, 01:46 AM
Tregrad Tregrad is offline
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Quote:
ormance characteristic

very informative to a point, comparing rapseed oil as an additive to diesel to the blends we are using is kinda like comparing apples to oranges it seems, I like others would sure like to see a test on some of the blends we use. some guys in here have been using a blen for many many miles with no problems or very few.

please correct me if im wrong here.
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Old 06-24-2008, 02:24 AM
Jeffrey S. Brooks Jeffrey S. Brooks is offline
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I read with great pleasure Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender (Jones and Peterson). The most significant things that I got out of that paper was every blend of vegetable oils with #2 Diesel resulted in “severe piston ring gumming and catastrophic engine failure.” And, Wagner and Peterson (1982), who heated unmodified vegetable oil prior to combustion, found it exhibited no measurable improvement in fuel injection, and caused “severe engine damage.” So much for the two-tank solution. However, Peterson et al. (1982) studying long-term effects of 70% rapeseed oil and 30% Number 1 diesel fuel found “no adverse operating conditions,” which suggests that using lighter solvents, such as kerosene or unleaded gasoline, to reduce the viscosity of unmodified vegetable oil, might be the correct long-term solution to burning vegetable oils in diesel engines.

Wagner and Peterson (1982) reported mixed results when using rapeseed oil as a substitute fuel. Attempts to heat the oil fuel mixture prior to combustion exhibited no measurable improvement in fuel injection. Severe engine damage was noted during short-term engine testing due to the use of rapeseed oil. A long-term test using a 70% rapeseed, diesel fuel blend was successful for 850 hours with no apparent signs of wear, contamination of lubricating oil, or loss of power.

Peterson et al. (1982) used rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel extender to study the long-term effects of using vegetable oils as a fuel source. Fuel composed of 70% rapeseed oil and 30% Number 1 diesel fuel was successfully used to operate a small single cylinder engine for 850 hours. No adverse operating conditions were reported at the conclusion of this engine study. A short-term performance test using 100% sunflower oil caused severe piston ring gumming and catastrophic engine failure. This study highlighted the need for significant long-term engine testing before recommendations of using vegetable oil as a fuel could be made.

Sources in support of Mixed Fuels:

Peterson, C.L., J. C. Thompson, G.L. Wagner, D. L. Auld, and R. A. Korus. 1982. Extraction and utilization of winter rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) as a diesel fuel extender. For presentation at American Oil Chemists’ Society Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, May 2-6, 1982.

Wagner, G. L., and C. L. Peterson. 1982. Performance of winter rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines. Vegetable Oil Fuels: Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils Fuels. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender –
A Literature Review
By Sam Jones and Charles L. Peterson
Graduate Research Assistant and Professor and Interim Head
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843
http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_...slitreview.pdf

Vegetable Oil As A Diesel Replacement Fuel
Phillip Calais* and AR (Tony) Clark**
* Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia,
** Western Australian Renewable Fuels Association Inc,
http://www.shortcircuit.com.au/warfa/paper/paper.htm

Sources in support of Mixed Fuels:

Mixed Fuels Dialog
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15660

Mixed fuel Essays, Testimonials and Dialogs on Additives, Blends and Fuel mixes
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15950

Key essays on Mixed fuel:
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/...l/message/7728
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/12030
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/13421
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/14379
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15616
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15660
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15749

Mixed fuels-Acetone
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/10779

Mixed fuels-Alcohol
"Gaydou, A.M., Menet, L., Ravelojaona, G., and Geneste, P. 1982. Vegetable energy sources in Madagascar: ethyl alcohol and oil seeds (French). Oleagineux 37(3):135–141."

Owner’s manuals that recommend Mixed Fuels
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15704

'82 VW Pickup owner’s manual there says that "UP TO 30% GASOLINE" may be added for cold weather starting.
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/12021

BMW manual
http://www.biofuel-uk.net/bmwpetrol.jpg

Viscosity stuff . . .
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15342
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15692
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/15728

Specific gravity measurements of SVO fuel mixes with gasoline
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/.../message/16317

Mixed fuels forums:
infopop forum
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...m/f/9751014871

Paddy's goat forum
http://www.vegetableoildiesel.co.uk/forum.

Forums where dialog on mixed fuels is not tolerated:
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/vegoil-diesel

Best regards,

Jeffrey S, Brooks
the Great Western Vehicle
http://www.greatwesternvehicle.org/r...fuel/index.htm
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  #10  
Old 06-24-2008, 02:46 AM
imported_mixelpix imported_mixelpix is offline
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Quote:
Originally posted by DCS:
Didn't you post all this up some time Back?
Is there anything new in it to make it worthwhile posting up again and using up more server space?
Wow, DCS - you and I agree for once.

At least Jeff has the decency not to post all the text contained in the unique resource locaters... sheesh.
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  #11  
Old 06-24-2008, 03:21 AM
imported_mixelpix imported_mixelpix is offline
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Jeff and john,

I am glad you two are finally getting hip to Journey To Forever. They are really nice folks should you ever get to know them.

That doesn't change the fact that their post of this review of literature is primarily concerning tests done twenty years ago. Passenger cars especially have changed a [i]teensy-weensy-lil'[/I[ bit since then.

You will note if you actually read the whole thing that the few more recent tests from the 1990's are much more encouraging in their analysis of vegetable oil use when mixed with diesel fuels, not gasoline.

Quote:
Originally posted by Jeffrey S. Brooks:
which suggests that using lighter solvents, such as kerosene or unleaded gasoline,
For starters, the word 'kerosene' itself is greek for wax. Think about this just a minute. How closely do you think it resembles gasoline?!?

from wikipedia:
"Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging from approx. C10H20 to C15H28"

Your misunderstandings about the different qualities of petroleum fractional distillates like gasoline and kerosene keeps leading you to make poor conclusions and promote irresponsible fueling practices, such as:

Quote:
Originally posted by Jeffrey S. Brooks:
using lighter solvents, such as kerosene (sic) or unleaded gasoline, to reduce the viscosity of unmodified vegetable oil, might be the correct long-term solution to burning vegetable oils in diesel engines.
No, gasoline is not the 'correct' long term solution, especially for newer passeger Diesels.

Kerosene like all [B[DIESEL[/b] fuel, however, are. Others diesel fuels include Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B, JP-4 -5 -7 -8 and Avtur. I've never found any RP-1 but I sure would love to experiment with it.

Best,
-Patrick Kennedy
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  #12  
Old 06-24-2008, 03:24 AM
imported_mixelpix imported_mixelpix is offline
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Quote:
Originally posted by john galt:
Stories of favorable results with various additives
Oh goody, is it story time?

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  #13  
Old 06-27-2008, 02:18 AM
Jeffrey S. Brooks Jeffrey S. Brooks is offline
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Mixed Fuels Research Summary

There have been a number of people who have reported on this forum that they indeed thin their vegetable oil at various times of the year. Most people use diesel fuel as a thinning agent, but some use kerosene (paraffin) and others use alcohol, or even gasoline (petrol). The general recommendation for blenders and mixers is either 50% diesel, or no more than 30% kerosene (paraffin) or gasoline (petrol).

In the report Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender (Jones and Peterson) found every blend of vegetable oils with #2 Diesel resulted in “severe piston ring gumming and catastrophic engine failure.” So, we can conclude that thinning WVO/SVO with any amount of #2 Diesel may result in “severe piston ring gumming and catastrophic engine failure.”

There are a number of people who burn WVO/SVO in a two-tank system where the engine starts up and shuts down on diesel fuel, but runs (once heated up) on 100% WVO/SVO; and these systems typically also rely upon heating the fuel line with the radiator fluid to about 165°F (74°C). However, Wagner and Peterson (1982), who heated unmodified vegetable oil prior to combustion, found it exhibited no measurable improvement in fuel injection, and also caused “severe engine damage.” Further, the ACREVO report stated “Atomisation tests showed that at 150°C (302°F) the performance of the rapeseed oil are comparable with that of the diesel oil.” This means the two-tankers, who generally only heat to 80 °C (176°F) are not heating the fuel up enough.

However, and ironically, the report also stated, by adding “9 % of ethyl alcohol (95 %) brings a great benefit regarding the pre-heating oil temperature. In fact, the presence of alcohol allows a reduction in the inlet oil temperature from 150 °C (302°F) to 80 °C (176°F).” So, according to these reports, the two-tankers should be mixing their WVO/SVO fuel with at least 9 % ethyl alcohol, if they want to avoid “severe engine damage.” So much for the 100% WVO/SVO two-tank solution.

The findings of Peterson et al. (1982) supports the ACREVO suggestion of adding 9 % of ethyl alcohol in their study of long-term effects of 70% rapeseed oil and 30% Number 1 diesel fuel (which is mostly kerosene). Peterson et al. (1982) found “no adverse operating conditions,” which suggests that using lighter solvents, such as kerosene or alcohol, to reduce the viscosity of unmodified vegetable oil, might be the correct long-term solution to burning vegetable oils in diesel engines, and not necessarily heating the fuel line.

There are a number of people on this forum who have found increased performance and a reduction in emissions through simply thinning their WVO/SVO. While there is no direct research to support our efforts, the ACREVO report and Peterson et al. (1982) suggest that other light solvents, such as unleaded gasoline, might just be the solution to safely and ethically burning WVO/SVO in a diesel engine.

Sources in support of Mixed Fuels:

Peterson, C.L., J. C. Thompson, G.L. Wagner, D. L. Auld, and R. A. Korus. 1982. Extraction and utilization of winter rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) as a diesel fuel extender. For presentation at American Oil Chemists’ Society Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, May 2-6, 1982.

Wagner, G. L., and C. L. Peterson. 1982. Performance of winter rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines. Vegetable Oil Fuels: Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils Fuels. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender –
A Literature Review
By Sam Jones and Charles L. Peterson
Graduate Research Assistant and Professor and Interim Head
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843
http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_...slitreview.pdf

Vegetable Oil As A Diesel Replacement Fuel
Phillip Calais* and AR (Tony) Clark**
* Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia,
** Western Australian Renewable Fuels Association Inc,
http://www.shortcircuit.com.au/warfa/paper/paper.htm

Mixed fuels-Alcohol
"Gaydou, A.M., Menet, L., Ravelojaona, G., and Geneste, P. 1982. Vegetable energy sources in Madagascar: ethyl alcohol and oil seeds (French). Oleagineux 37(3):135–141."

Advanced Combustion Research for Vegetable Oils (ACREVO)
http://ctbiodzl.freeshell.org/BE05/F484.htm

Blends in use....(1 year or more)
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...1/m/1291001052

Owner’s manuals on mixed fuels
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...1/m/7391063652

Mixed fuels Testimonials
http://biodiesel.infopop.cc/eve/foru...1/m/8811073412

Best regards,

Jeffrey S, Brooks
the Great Western Vehicle
http://www.greatwesternvehicle.org/r...fuel/index.htm
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  #14  
Old 06-28-2008, 12:54 AM
Sushi Blender Sushi Blender is offline
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Quote:
Unmodified Vegetable Oils
This should be a big red flag when reading and applying the results of said experiments.
__________________
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My information is free, so take it FWIW.
MB OM602 50%wvo/50%D2 dispersant & turps(PGT)@2%
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  #15  
Old 06-28-2008, 07:25 PM
Jeffrey S. Brooks Jeffrey S. Brooks is offline
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Quote:
quote:
Unmodified Vegetable Oils



This should be a big red flag when reading and applying the results of said experiments.
Hello Sushi Blender, I am not sure what you mean. Because, Unmodified Vegetable Oils refers what we call WVO or SVO. And, the point of this forum is how to take Unmodified Vegetable Oils and burn them in a diesel engine. While adding additives and solvents to WVO/SVO reduces the viscosity of the oil, it does not modify the oil itself.

Best, Jeff Brooks
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  #16  
Old 06-28-2008, 07:41 PM
john galt john galt is offline
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That is stated clearly in the first paragraph of the first message in this discussion thread.

Quote:
The term vegetable oils as used in this paper refers to
vegetable oils which have not been modified by transesterification or similar processes to
form what is called biodiesel.
Most of the problems seemed to be associated with raw VO, rather than the processed and degummed used fryer oil mixed as fuel.
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  #17  
Old 06-28-2008, 08:20 PM
Sushi Blender Sushi Blender is offline
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Unmodified, RAW, crude, unrefined and semirefined vege oils are NOT food grade oils. Food grade oils(depending on the oil)have been; dewaxed, degummed, stripped of FFA's, hydrogenated, winterized,bleached, deodourized,etc... You need to look at the original study, not some synopsis with the subjective view of the author.

Jeff, I have no idea what your talking about?

Quote:
In general,
<span class="ev_code_RED">raw vegetable oils </span> can be used successfully in short term performance tests in nearly any
__________________
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My information is free, so take it FWIW.
MB OM602 50%wvo/50%D2 dispersant & turps(PGT)@2%
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  #18  
Old 11-26-2008, 05:49 AM
john galt john galt is offline
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should be a 'sticky'
but this will do...
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